Robert E. Lee born on 19th January 1807 and died 0n 12th October 1870 was an American soldier. He was best known for commanding the confederate army of northern Virginia in the American civil war from 1862 until his surrender in 1865. He was the son of a revolutionary war officer known as Henry Lee the III and a top graduate from the United States military academy.The army of northern Virginia was the primary military force of the confederate states of America in the eastern theatre of the American civil war as well as the primary command structure of the department of northern Virginia .it was most often arrayed against the union army of the Potomac. The American civil war commonly known in the United States as the civil war was fought from 1861 to 1865 to determine the survival of the union or independence for the confederacy. Among 34 states as of January 1861, seven southern states individually declared their succession from the United States and formed the confederate states of America known as confederacy or south. They grew to include eleven states although they claimed thirteen states and other additional foreign territories. The confederacy was never diplomatically recognized by a foreign country. The states that never declared succession and remained loyal to the United States were known as the union or north.
Hostilities began on 12th April 24, 1861 when confederate forces fired upon fort Sumter, a key fort held by union troops in south California. The current president Abraham Lincoln called for every state to provide troops to retake the fort, consequently four more slave states joined the confederacy bringing their total to eleven. Lincoln soon controlled the Border States after arresting state legislators and suspending others, ignoring the ruling of the Supreme Court’s chief justice that such suspension was unconstitutional and established a naval blockade that crippled the southern economy. The eastern theatre was inconclusive in 1861-62.the autumn 1862 confederate campaign into Maryland (a union state) ended with confederate retreat battle of Antietam.
In 1863, Robert E. LEE’s confederate incursion north ended at the battle of Gettysburg .Lincoln issued the emancipation proclamation which made ending slavery a war goal. The war had its origin in the fractious issue of slavery especially the extension of the slavery in the western territories. After four years of combat that left over 600,000 union and confederacy soldiers dead and destroyed much of South’s infrastructure, the confederacy collapsed and slavery was abolished then began the process of reconstruction and restoring national unity and guaranteeing civil rights to the freed slaves.
Robert E. Lee was an exceptional officer and combat engineer in the united states army for about 32years. During all this time he served all over the United States and distinguished himself during the Mexican-American war and served as the superintendent of the United States military academy.
The civil war was one of the earliest true industrial wars. Railroads, telegraphs, steamships and mass-produced weapons were employed extensively and remains the deadliest war in American history.